Reading is a highly specialized activity that shapes cognition in diverse ways and constitutes a fundamental part of scientific literacy (Morais & Kolinsky, 2016). Different text formats shape cognition differently, with previous studies showing that learning scientific contents is better under literary narrative than expository formats (e.g., Arya & Maul, 2012). However, the cognitive processes involved have not been fully addressed. We will investigate the role of specific executive functions (EF), inference and theory of mind (ToM) abilities. Adult participants will read scientific texts written as literary narratives or expository texts while executing tasks recruiting the specified EF and ToM abilities. We will measure the impact of the dual task on learning and inference generation and collect electrophysiological measures. The impact of developmental differences will be also evaluated, by having participants at different EF and ToM developmental levels (students from the 5th and 10th grades) completing cognitive tasks and reading scientific texts. Learning will be measured and mediation and moderation effects tested to explore the specific role played by EF, inference and ToM in learning under different formats. We hope to shed light on the cognitive processes involved in scientific learning across formats and to inform more efficient learning practices.