The Crisis of Multiparty System in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Emergence and Crystallization of Dominant Party Systems - The Case of Frelimo in Mozambique (1990 - 2019)
26th World Congress of Political Science
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The late of 1980s and early 1990s witnessed the transition of many countries to a multi-party democratic system. It was really a return to the possibility of plural political coexistence on the continent. This was an almost universal trend following the end of the Cold War. When multiparty emerged on the African continent in the post-colonial and post-authoritarian context, characterized by the existence of a weak civil society, with a largely static economy that concentrated political and economic resources in the hands of powerful local and national elites, the first -movements of liberation. However, the urge to democratize states in sub-Saharan Africa soon proved difficult and to some extent unlikely. Many states stagnated in this process, which led to classifications as hybrid regimes or even competitive authoritarianism, where the dominant focus is the coexistence between authoritarianism and democracy. Overall, the level of party-political competition is low, resulting from weak pluralism and the establishment of dominant party systems. Smaller opposition parties operating on the periphery of the political system are becoming increasingly irrelevant in terms of their ability to create the necessary balances in the process of decision-making or government action, and a scenario of strengthening power by the incumbent party established in Mozambique. by Frelimo. Sequentially, the results of the elections have been contested by opposition parties, with particular emphasis on Renamo, resulting in some cases in the outbreak of political and military instability in the country. This article analyzes the dynamics of post-conflict societies; the subsequent political reforms (with emphasis on the electoral area) and, finally, the tendency to return to the one-party regime, which shapes the crisis of the multiparty system.
Multiparty System,Elections,Party System and Dominant Party.