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Zickfeld, J. H., Van de Ven; N., Pich, O., Schubert, T. W., Berkessel, J. B., Pizarro, J. ...Vingerhoets, A. (2021). Tears evoke the intention to offer social support: A systematic investigation of the interpersonal effects of emotional crying across 41 countries. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 95
Exportar Referência (IEEE)
J. H. Zickfeld et al.,  "Tears evoke the intention to offer social support: A systematic investigation of the interpersonal effects of emotional crying across 41 countries", in Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 95, 2021
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	author = "Zickfeld, J. H. and Van de Ven; N. and Pich, O. and Schubert, T. W. and Berkessel, J. B. and Pizarro, J.  and Bhushan, B. and Mateo, N. J. and Barbosa, S. and Sharman, L. and Kökönyei, G. and Schrover, E. and Kardum, I.  and Aruta, J. J. B. and Lazarevic, L. B. and Escobar, M. J. and Stadel, M. and Arriaga, P. and Dodaj, A. and Shankland, R. and Majeed, N. M. and Li, Y. and Lekkou, E. and Hartanto, A. and Özdoğru, A. A. and Vaughn, L. A. and Espinoza; M. Del C. and Caballero, A.  and Kolen, A. and Karsten, J. and Manley, H. and Maeura, N. and Eşkisu, M. and Shani, Y. and Chittham, P. and Ferreira, D. and Bavolar, J. and Konova, I. and Sato, W. and Morvinski, C. and Carrera, P.  and Villar, S. and Ibanez, A. and Hareli, S. and Garcia, A. M. and Kremer, I. and Götz, F. M. and Schwerdtfeger, A. and Estrada-Mejia, C. and Nakayama, M. and Ng, W. Q. and Sesar, K. and Orjiakor, C. T. and Dumont, K. and Allred, T. B. and Gračanin, A. and Rentfrow, P. J. and Schönefeld, V. and Vally, Z. and Barzykowski, K. and Peltola, H.-R. and Tcherkassof, A. and Haque, S. and Śmieja, M. and Su-May, T. T. and IJzerman, H. and Vatakis, A. and Ong, C. W. and Choi, E. and Schorch, S. L. and Páez, D.  and Malik, S. and Kačmár, P. and Bobowik, M. and Jose, P. and Vuoskoski, J.  and Basabe, N. and Doğan, U. and Ebert, T. and Uchida, Y. and Zheng, M. X. and Mefoh, P. and Šebeňa, R. and Stanke, F. A. and Ballada, C. J. and Blaut, A. and Wu, Y. and Daniels, J. K. and Kocsel, N. and Burak, E. G. D. and Balt, N. F. and Vanman, E. and Stewart, S. L. K. and Verschuere, B. and Sikka, P. and Boudesseul, J. and Martins, Diogo and Nussinson, R.  and Ito, K. and Mentser, S.  and Çolak, T. S. and Martinez-Zelaya, G. and Vingerhoets, A.",
	title = "Tears evoke the intention to offer social support: A systematic investigation of the interpersonal effects of emotional crying across 41 countries",
	journal = "Journal of Experimental Social Psychology",
	year = "2021",
	volume = "95",
	number = "",
	doi = "10.1016/j.jesp.2021.104137",
	url = ""
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TI  - Tears evoke the intention to offer social support: A systematic investigation of the interpersonal effects of emotional crying across 41 countries
T2  - Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
VL  - 95
AU  - Zickfeld, J. H.
AU  - Van de Ven; N.
AU  - Pich, O.
AU  - Schubert, T. W.
AU  - Berkessel, J. B.
AU  - Pizarro, J. 
AU  - Bhushan, B.
AU  - Mateo, N. J.
AU  - Barbosa, S.
AU  - Sharman, L.
AU  - Kökönyei, G.
AU  - Schrover, E.
AU  - Kardum, I. 
AU  - Aruta, J. J. B.
AU  - Lazarevic, L. B.
AU  - Escobar, M. J.
AU  - Stadel, M.
AU  - Arriaga, P.
AU  - Dodaj, A.
AU  - Shankland, R.
AU  - Majeed, N. M.
AU  - Li, Y.
AU  - Lekkou, E.
AU  - Hartanto, A.
AU  - Özdoğru, A. A.
AU  - Vaughn, L. A.
AU  - Espinoza; M. Del C.
AU  - Caballero, A. 
AU  - Kolen, A.
AU  - Karsten, J.
AU  - Manley, H.
AU  - Maeura, N.
AU  - Eşkisu, M.
AU  - Shani, Y.
AU  - Chittham, P.
AU  - Ferreira, D.
AU  - Bavolar, J.
AU  - Konova, I.
AU  - Sato, W.
AU  - Morvinski, C.
AU  - Carrera, P. 
AU  - Villar, S.
AU  - Ibanez, A.
AU  - Hareli, S.
AU  - Garcia, A. M.
AU  - Kremer, I.
AU  - Götz, F. M.
AU  - Schwerdtfeger, A.
AU  - Estrada-Mejia, C.
AU  - Nakayama, M.
AU  - Ng, W. Q.
AU  - Sesar, K.
AU  - Orjiakor, C. T.
AU  - Dumont, K.
AU  - Allred, T. B.
AU  - Gračanin, A.
AU  - Rentfrow, P. J.
AU  - Schönefeld, V.
AU  - Vally, Z.
AU  - Barzykowski, K.
AU  - Peltola, H.-R.
AU  - Tcherkassof, A.
AU  - Haque, S.
AU  - Śmieja, M.
AU  - Su-May, T. T.
AU  - IJzerman, H.
AU  - Vatakis, A.
AU  - Ong, C. W.
AU  - Choi, E.
AU  - Schorch, S. L.
AU  - Páez, D. 
AU  - Malik, S.
AU  - Kačmár, P.
AU  - Bobowik, M.
AU  - Jose, P.
AU  - Vuoskoski, J. 
AU  - Basabe, N.
AU  - Doğan, U.
AU  - Ebert, T.
AU  - Uchida, Y.
AU  - Zheng, M. X.
AU  - Mefoh, P.
AU  - Šebeňa, R.
AU  - Stanke, F. A.
AU  - Ballada, C. J.
AU  - Blaut, A.
AU  - Wu, Y.
AU  - Daniels, J. K.
AU  - Kocsel, N.
AU  - Burak, E. G. D.
AU  - Balt, N. F.
AU  - Vanman, E.
AU  - Stewart, S. L. K.
AU  - Verschuere, B.
AU  - Sikka, P.
AU  - Boudesseul, J.
AU  - Martins, Diogo
AU  - Nussinson, R. 
AU  - Ito, K.
AU  - Mentser, S. 
AU  - Çolak, T. S.
AU  - Martinez-Zelaya, G.
AU  - Vingerhoets, A.
PY  - 2021
SN  - 0022-1031
DO  - 10.1016/j.jesp.2021.104137
UR  -
AB  - Tearful crying is a ubiquitous and likely uniquely human phenomenon. Scholars have argued that emotional tears serve an attachment function: Tears are thought to act as a social glue by evoking social support intentions. Initial experimental studies supported this proposition across several methodologies, but these were conducted almost exclusively on participants from North America and Europe, resulting in limited generalizability. This project examined the tears-social support intentions effect and possible mediating and moderating variables in a fully pre-registered study across 7007 participants (24,886 ratings) and 41 countries spanning all populated continents. Participants were presented with four pictures out of 100 possible targets with or without digitally-added tears. We confirmed the main prediction that seeing a tearful individual elicits the intention to support, d = 0.49 [0.43, 0.55]. Our data suggest that this effect could be mediated by perceiving the crying target as warmer and more helpless, feeling more connected, as well as feeling more empathic concern for the crier, but not by an increase in personal distress of the observer. The effect was moderated by the situational valence, identifying the target as part of one's group, and trait empathic concern. A neutral situation, high trait empathic concern, and low identification increased the effect. We observed high heterogeneity across countries that was, via split-half validation, best explained by country-level GDP per capita and subjective well-being with stronger effects for higher-scoring countries. These findings suggest that tears can function as social glue, providing one possible explanation why emotional crying persists into adulthood.
ER  -