Contentious politics and student dissent in the twilight of the Portuguese dictatorship: analysis of a protest cycle
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This article focuses on student opposition to the Portuguese Estado Novo regime, examining the links between the dynamics of mobilization and radicalization and the emergence of new political actors before the fall of the Salazar dictatorship on the one hand, and the revolutionary process which characterized the Portuguese transition on the other. The 25 April 1974 military coup d'état that overthrew the Estado Novo triggered what later came to be known as the ‘third wave’ of democratization; but the Portuguese transition was characterized by elements of rupture that were much more significant than those observed in the subsequent democratization processes of Spain and Greece. This rupture was a result of the form of regime change – a military coup d'état – and was sustained with the mass social mobilization that followed. While key studies have stressed that the political crisis after the fall of regime was the fundamental cause of this exceptional mobilization, the argument advanced in this article is that the pre-revolutionary cycle of protest also explains the particular characteristics of the Portuguese transition.
Coup d'etat; Portuguese Estado Novo; Cycle of protest; Dictatorship; Revolution; Democratization; Transition; Students; Mobilization; Political opportunity structure
Classificação Fields of Science and Technology
- Ciências Políticas - Ciências Sociais