Relations between the European Union (EU) and Africa have been governed by a series of institutional arrangements, which have been important in shaping the interregional relationship. In the 1950s, the founding texts of the EU already included provisions for an ‘association’ with countries in Africa that had ‘special relations’ with some of the European member states. Subsequently, new mechanisms were devised to manage those relations, reflecting developments of a different nature in Europe, Africa and the wider world. This chapter provides a long-term and comprehensive assessment of the institutional frameworks governing EU-Africa relations, from the 1950s Rome Treaty to the 2000s Cotonou Agreement. It takes stock of how the set of institutions, rules, narratives and practices that govern those relations have evolved historically, examining their origins, nature and effects. In that endeavour the analysis considers how key actors dynamically interacted within these institutional frameworks and their main contexts to shape concrete policy outcomes. The primary goal was tracing major patterns of continuity and change. Since EU-Africa relations have been organised over time by several distinct policy frameworks (some reviewed in other parts of this volume), the geographical scope of this chapter regarding the African side is circumscribed to the sub-Saharan subregion, which for most of the period analysed here structured the main of its relationship with Europe as part of the broader Africa, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group. The remainder of this chapter considers what have been the principal arrangements governing those delineated relations: the Rome Treaty (1957–1963), the Yaoundé conventions (1963–1975), the Lomé conventions (1975–2000) and the Cotonou Agreement (2000–2020).